A Life Science research team reveals that Both human and mouse gene make a genetic difference which makes research rodents less that perfect patients

Christopher Austin, the director of the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS) at the National Institutes of Health. Cancer and other diseases cured so many times. All these things happen in mice. Hundreds of Drugs have been tested on mice, And all the test showing perfect results. They able to wipe out the tumor inside the mice. But these experiments fell in Human.They turned out to toxic in a human being, where 90% of all drug trials never make it to FDA approval.

Transgenic mouse stem cell

Researcher started research on mice early back in 1900s Geneticist Clarence Cook Little suspected cancer was an inherited disease, and mice — short-lived and low maintenance — were the ideal test subjects. Their lab sold mouse strains all over the country.They even secured the mouse as the official animal model for government-funded cancer research.

Human and mice share about 97% of their genes. But in some cases, there is just one nucleotide difference — a single G, T, A or C. But Austin says it’s like reading a word with a letter missing.

Austin said that”if u mess up a letter it will change the meaning of the word”. Same in DNA there is small changes in sequence will change the entire structure of DNA sequence.

Austin said that”If you put [identical mice] in two different environments, in two different time zones, two locations, the results are different,”. Recently a research explained that mice were better models when they were exposed to common human viruses. Lab mice bred to be “perfect” controls live a pampered lifestyle that alters their physiology.

Another issue is that most of the scientists are not expertise in mouse biology.

In previous investigators work in a vacuum,” says Elizabeth Bryda, director of the Rat Resource and Research Center (RRRC). Always scientists won’t think about the genetic differences between mice and humans because they’re focused elsewhere.  She said,”Maybe the species you’re working with isn’t the best species for the question, but you don’t know enough about the physiology or the genetics to recognize that”.

Rats and mice are common in labs.The two have minor physiological differences and, more notably, psychological variations that affect how they interact. But these issues plaguing mouse research often appear in rats, too.

RRRC helps solve that by acting as a kind of rat customization shop. They have a rat with pulmonary hypertension and a deficiency of serotonin. They’ve got the model  Or maybe one with cataracts? No problem. Thanks to CRISPR gene-editing tools, researchers can tweak the rat genome to create so-called transgenic animals with human-like disease traits.

A researcher using the gene editing sequence create rodents that are ideal research models could narrow the genetic divide between humans and their animal stand-ins. But scientists are still unraveling what makes a mouse tick.

The International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium is doubling down on the mouse and picking through its genome with the finest of combs. Mice have around 20,000 genes that bear strong similarities to humans. Kent Lloyd, who directs the Mouse Biology Program at the University of California, Davis, said that” We know the function of about half of these”.

He and his colleagues at the Consortium continuing their research to understand the other half. It is very difficult to remove — the relevant genes in stem cell cultures. Once a gene is gone, researchers grow mice from the stem cells to see what happens. By 2020, the group hopes to fully understand the 20,000-gene bridge between us and our lab experiments.

Austin’s NCATS, have stopped chasing the perfect mouse entirely. They’re developing computer models that can re-create human cells and organs to test how virtual humans respond to new drugs.

Other researchers are building a chip called “organs on a chip.” Introducing new drugs to plastic microchips lined with human cells should let researchers watch what happens without ever involving a living creature.

For a long time, scientists have their relationship with both human and mouse gene.It has been one of the incremental advances to improve a flawed system.But still, they continue their research. This is exactly how most scientific research progresses —By examining, again and again, to face new issues on our research so that we can expand our knowledge.